• Time domain study of a Linear System
  • Op-amp simulated system for greater accuracy
  • Flexible systems configuration
  • Full details of experiments included
  • Additional experiments may be performed


The most important performance aspect of a practical system is its response to known input. A large part of the analysis of such systems is therefore devoted to time domain studies. The set-up offered is a variable configuration simulated system designed for time domain studies of both open loop and closed loop systems. Selection at block diagram level eliminates the need to bother about the details of electronic circuitry and its assembly. Thus time and efforts could be directed towards understanding and experimenting with the basic aspects of linear control systems.

Schematic diagram of the simulator shown includes transfer functions of the form 1/s and 1/(sT+1), a calibrated variable gain K and an error detector. These could be combined to form a variety of system configurations. The unity gain uncommitted amplifier can be used to ensure negative feedback. The time constants have been selected such that the system response may be observed conveniently on a CRO. This avoids the need to use an expensive and delicate X-Y recorder for the experiment.

Built-in square wave and triangular wave generators provide test inputs to study both transient and steady state responses. Provision is also there to observe the effect of disturbances. Additionally, frequency response studies can be made using an external sine wave generator.

An exhaustive literature is supplied with the unit to enable the students to understand and appreciate the intricacies and importance of time response studies of linear systems. It includes steps of mathematical analysis, procedure for experiments, typical results and suggestions for additional experimentation.


  • Open loop step response of First Order type-0 system for various values of gain
  • Closed loop step response of First Order type-0 system for various values of gain
  • Open loop step response of Second Order type-0 and type-1 systems
  • Closed loop step response of Second Order type-0 and type-1 systems
  • Steady-State errors for closed loop configuration through triangular wave input
  • Response of third order system

In each of the above, the experimental results obtained by measurements of the response curves can be compared with theoretical calculations.

The number of experiments possible on the unit is not limited to those suggested above. Subject to the availability of time many more variations of the above are feasible.

Features & Specifications

  • Simulated first, second and third order system of type-0 and type-1 (4 combinations)
  • Calibrated variable gain amplifier (Resolution 1 : 1000)
  • Built-in signal sources: Square wave and Triangular
    • Frequency: 45-90Hz
    • Amplitude: 0-2.5V approximately
  • Trigger output for perfectly steady display on CRO
  • Uncommitted amplifier for phase adjustment
  • Provision for disturbance inputs
  • 110V±10%, 50Hz mains operation
  • Complete in all respect, except a measuring CRO



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