A transistor has low input impedance and high output impedance and hence the use of Z and Y parameters becomes awkward specially at high frequencies. As a result the hybrid or ‘h’ parameters are found to be most useful for transistor circuit analysis, because the hybrid parameters form a combination of impedance and admittance parameters and are selected to ideally suit the low input and high impedance of the transistor. Another advantage is that the parameters h11, h21 and h22 almost correspond to the actual operating conditions.

The following studies can be carried out with this set-up
  • Study of h11 parameter (input impedance)
  • Study of h22 parameter (output admittance)
  • Study of h21 parameter (forward current transfer ratio)
  • Study of h22 parameter (reverse voltage feedback ratio)

The experimental set-up is provided with a built-in power supplies and is complete.
Measuring instrument required

The above experimental set-up has been laid down on a decorated bakelite board with an aim of providing an easy understanding to the students. All components are well spread out for clarity and easy repairs and replacement. The set-up is provided with a booklet, which contains its detailed theory of operation, description, specifications, suggestions and discussion on the various experiments that may be performed with it.


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